Programs offered by English-speaking school districts that provide classes in regular school subjects such as math, science and social studies that are taught in the immersion language enabling students to acquire the language as they learn the content. Once a firm base in the immersion language has been established, instruction in English language arts is added, and instruction in the English language gradually increases. Students generally continue to receive instruction in certain subjects in the immersion language so that by the end of secondary school, proficiency is achieved in both languages. Included are total immersion programs in which all classes are taught in the immersion language; partial immersion programs in which half of the subjects are taught in the immersion language (with material in some cases, reinforced in English); and dual (or two-way) language immersion programs in which one to two thirds of the students speak the immersion language natively, the others speaking English natively.
Programs that administer tests which assess the ability of examinees to speak, understand, read and/or write English, French or any of a wide variety of other languages. The examinations may measure different levels of competency and may test oral language capabilities (how well individuals understand and express themselves in a language including their vocabulary and grammar), reading comprehension and/or written language competency (how well individuals write in a particular language and/or are able to translate to and from that language). In some instances, the cultural competency of examinees is also measured. Language proficiency examinations may be given to the current or potential employees of organizations in situations where mastery of a particular language is a work requirement, to students who need a minimum level of proficiency to succeed in their classes, to students who have studied a foreign language (e.g., in high school) to assure appropriate college/university-level course placement, to individuals who want to teach in a particular language and to people who need to demonstrate proficiency for other reasons.
The above terms and definitions are part of the Taxonomy of Human Services, used here by permission of INFO LINE of Los Angeles.